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Coronavirus-Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Precautions

What is Coronavirus?

Coronavirus is a type of virus that can infect the upper throat, nose and sinuses. Most types of coronaviruses are not dangerous. There are some types of coronaviruses which are very hazardous for human health and cause fatal diseases like the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In 2018, MERS-CoV was appeared first time in Saudi Arabia and then in Africa, Asia and Europe. Almost 858 people have died of MERS. SARS-CoV appeared in 2003 and 774 people have died of SARS. However, in 2015, no case of SARS was found in the world.

Recently in early 2020, a novel coronavirus was found in Wuhan, China, that has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a new type. WHO named that virus “2019 novel coronavirus” (2019-nCoV). Chinese authorities have lockdown the epidemic centre to restrict that breakout. Experts are sharing important data about the novel coronavirus with the World Health Organization and other researchers. This breakout was declared by the World Health Organization, on 30 January of 2020, as a “Public health emergency of international concern”

Symptoms of 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV):

Following are the main symptoms of 2019 novel
coronavirus infection.

1. Fever

2. Cough

3. Shortness of breath

Some types of coronaviruses that are common in humans,
including HKU1, 229E, OC43 and 229E, can produce mild to moderate upper
respiratory tract problems and may cause common colds. These problems last only
for a short period.

Major symptoms that can be caused by these above-mentioned
strains may include:

1. Sore throat

2. Cough

3. Runny nose

4. Fever

5. Headache

6. The feeling of being unwell

Sometimes, coronaviruses of human may cause severe
problems of the lower-respiratory tract, for example, bronchitis and pneumonia.
Human coronaviruses are more dangerous for cardiopulmonary patients, infants,
people with immune problems and also dangerous for older adults.

There are two other coronaviruses which can cause
severe symptoms in humans such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Major
symptoms of SARS are chills, fever, and body aches that may progress to
pneumonia. On the other hand, cough, fever and shortness of breath are the
major symptoms of MERS. However, in severe conditions, MERS may progress to
pneumonia. In every 10 patients, almost 3 to 4 patients of MERS have died.

Diagnosis for 2019-novel coronavirus:

To detect human coronaviruses, serum (part of the
blood) and respiratory specimens of the patient are tested in the laboratory.

If the patient is experiencing symptoms of CoV
infections, then he must be consulted his doctor. Especially, if the patient
recently come back from the countries where human coronaviruses are spread.

Prevention for 2019-novel coronavirus:

If you want to protect yourself from a viral infection of coronavirus then do not expose your body to this. However, experts recommend some important everyday preventive actions which can help people to prevent themselves from respiratory viruses:

1. Wash both of hands with clean water and best quality soap for at least 30 seconds.

2. If clean water is not available then use good quality hand sanitizers which contain 60% alcohol.

3. Do not touch your nose eyes and mouth with unwashed dirty hands.

4. Avoid close contact with infected people.

5. Do not go out if you are infected.

6. Cover your mouth while coughing or sneezing with the clean tissue and then throw that tissue in the bin.

7. Frequently touched objects should be clean.


Currently, there is no specific vaccine or antidote for the treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection. Medical experts use supportive care to treat 2019-nCoV infected patients. In severe conditions, doctors may try to protect the vital organs of the patients.

Infected people should contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible.

Resources and References:

Kimberlin, D. W. (2018). Red Book: 2018-2021 report of the committee on infectious diseases (No. Ed. 31). American academy of pediatrics.

Muth, D., Corman, V. M., Roth, H., Binger, T., Dijkman, R., Gottula, L. T., … & Toplak, I. (2018). Attenuation of replication by a 29 nucleotide deletion in SARS-coronavirus acquired during the early stages of human-to-human transmission. Scientific reports8(1), 1-11.

Killerby, M. E., Biggs, H. M., Haynes, A., Dahl, R. M., Mustaquim, D., Gerber, S. I., & Watson, J. T. (2018). Human coronavirus circulation in the United States 2014–2017. Journal of Clinical Virology101, 52-56.

Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) advice for the public by WHO

WHO technical guidance about 2019 novel Coronavirus

symptoms and diagnosis for 2019-nCoV by CDC

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